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February 15, 2013 | 0 comments

The final part in a three-part guest blog series submitted by Internet Hall of Fame inductee Nancy Hafkin explores the anticipated expansion of the study she recently conducted with Sophia Huyer, executive director of Women in Global Science and Technology (WISAT). Gender in the Knowledge Society Framework finds that multiple factors must be addressed before women achieve parity in the science and technology fields.


by Guest Contributor Nancy Hafkin 

In 2013, Gender in the Knowledge Society Framework will be extended to another seven countries. In the meantime we have come to some tentative conclusions. Within education there needs to be very positive encouragement for women and girls to study science and technology.  However, it is not enough to concentrate on increasing girls’ access to education.  Education does not stand alone.  Both good health and decent social status are necessary elements in the equation. There has to be a supportive policy environment for women that covers, for starters, both health and social status, as well...

January 18, 2013 | 0 comments

Last month, a post by guest blogger and Internet Hall of Fame inductee Nancy Hafkin examined the growing knowledge divide between men and women in seven countries around the world.  This month, in the second of a three-part series, she takes a step back from the country-by-country data and tells us about the overall findings of her recent study, Gender in the Knowledge Society Framework, and what they say about women and the knowledge society. 


by Guest Contributor Nancy Hafkin

The overall findings of the recent study I conducted with Sophia Huyer, Executive Director of Women in Global Science and Technology (WISAT), were striking for what they say about women and the knowledge society in general.  Women are not absent from the sciences; in health and life sciences they are highly...

January 7, 2013 | 0 comments

The Internet was built on TCP/IP, networking protocols originally created by American computer scientists Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn. But Cerf and Kahn were building on the work of Louis Pouzin.

In the early 1970s, working as a researcher for the French government, Pouzin created a computer network known as CYCLADES, and Vint Cerf himself has cited Pouzin’s design as one of the key influences behind the development of TCP/IP.

It isn’t hard to see why. With CYCLADES, Pouzin built a network where the delivery of information between machines was overseen by the machines themselves — not by some piece of central network hardware. In other words, he realized one the fundamental ideas that makes the Internet the Internet.

“We designed CYCLADES to be connected to other networks — in the future,” Pouzin remembers.

This past April, in recognition of his role in the creation of TCP/IP and his contribution to various other networking standards, Pouzin was inducted into the Internet Society’s (ISOC) Internet Hall of Fame. Part of the Hall’s inaugural class, he was enshrined alongside such as names as Sir Tim Berners-Lee,...

January 3, 2013 | 0 comments

The global ubiquity of cell phones has given us the false sense that information technology is universally accessible, but Internet Hall of Fame inductee Nancy Hafkin and research partner Sophia Huyer have found that nothing could be further from the truth. In the first of a three-part blog series, guest contributor Hafkin explores a growing gender knowledge divide.


by Guest Contributor Nancy Hafkin

When the term digital divide first appeared in the mid nineties, it was used to describe divides in access to information technology on ethnic, racial, and geographic lines in the U.S.[1]  From the US the concept of the digital divide spread to the divide between developed and developing countries.

The awareness of a global digital gender divide didn’t come until several years after the concept first emerged. Even after it was raised as an area of concern, it was very hard to find any reliable evidence of its existence, outside of the national statistics offices of highly developed countries.  The United Nations International Telecommunication Union, the global go-to source for information technology and telecommunications statistics, didn’t publish any sex-disaggregated statistics...

December 31, 2012 | 0 comments

Peter Kirstein is the man who put the Queen of England on the Internet in 1976.

That’s Her Majesty in the photo, and if the year isn’t immediately obvious from the computer terminal she’s typing on — or from her attire — you can find it on the wall, just to her left, printed on one of the signs trumpeting the arrival of the ARPAnet.

The date was March 26, 1976, and the ARPAnet — the computer network that eventually morphed into the internet — had just come to the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, a telecommunications research center in Malvern, England. The Queen was on hand to christen the connection, and in the process, she became one of the first heads of state to send an e-mail.

It was Peter Kirstein who set up her mail account, choosing the username “HME2.” That’s Her Majesty, Elizabeth II. “All she had to do was press a couple of buttons,” he...